Brick Kiln: New Dimension of Environmental Damage

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Brick manufacturing is the fastest growing industry in Bangladesh like other countries. This Small scale industries are one of the major contributors to atmospheric pollution in the Environment. The brick kiln industry is a booming industry as the demand for bricks is increasing Almost universally because of fast economic growth, urbanization, prosperity, and high growth of population. The raw materials used for brick production are soil clay or sediments From the river and agricultural land.

Most of the brick kilns use coal, forest wood, fruit trees of Homestead areas, and forest woods are also used as fuel to burn bricks. By burning those Materials, they produce sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen dioxide, Carbon mono oxide, Carbon Dioxide, Methane, etc. Damage our environment. Brick kilns also produce contaminated fumes. This element causes high air pollution. To produce brick, they use clay which collects.

From agricultural land or riverside which causes agricultural damage and damage to water
Body. In our locality, Damurhuda, Chuadanga. There are more than 40+ brick kilns and they
Produce more than 1 core per year. As the total number of population in our locality is
More than 2,55,259. So, the demand for bricks is also high. In that context, the capitalist
Produce more bricks and damage our It is the result of modernization, industrialization, globalization and population growth.

In this article, I will try to explain the worst environmental as Air pollution reference to brick
Kilns. I also explain the impact of brick kilns in our locality. I connect this problem with
Our everyday life such as education, employment, agriculture, livelihood, and health problems
To explain this paper, I created some sub-topics. I explain this paper by sociological
Perspectives such as Risk society, Marxism, First Generation theory: policies and protects,
And Ecological Modernization theory.

Theoretical overview :

We can explain brick kilns as environmental damage by “World Risk Society Society”,
Delivered by. Ulrich Beck. In this theory, he argues that “industrial societies are slowly
Dissolving as environmental problems build up. This is an unintended consequence of the
“rush for economic growth and material prosperity” (Giddens, 2013:192). This has consequences.

Moving to “World Risk Society”. He also argues that most of the risks we face are the product of
Human activity, they are not like natural disasters in film and television.
According to this approach, in the above, we see that the brick industries are increasing because of economic growth, industrialization, urbanizations, prosperity, and population growth. They produce more brick, they collect more soil from riverside and agricultural land which damage
Our environment and productivity.

To burn bricks, they use coal, fruit trees, wood, etc. Which produce Sulphur dioxide, Nitrogen
Dioxide, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide. These elements cause serious air pollution.
As a result, degradation of the ozone layer, world temperature gradually increasing which is called
Global warming. So, we are moving to gradually a Risk Society.

Brick Kilns are a product of industrial capitalism. Capitalism wants to profit by any chance.
In that context, they cannot look at the problems of the environment. . As, high demand for bricks, capitalists established more brick kilns and earn a profit. They exploit the environment and labor.

The main raw materials for bricks is clay which they collect riverside, agricultural land and
Around the brick kilns or from the nearest available land. The clay is transported by truck
/lorry. This truck/lorry ran over a spread which caused road damage around this locality.
The labor of brick kilns, they cannot earn enough money. So, it is said that brick kilns are a
Product of capitalism. Because they produce more bricks, they exploit labor, they cannot
Pay attention to environmental problems.

Methodology :

To complete this study, the locations of examined brick kilns were in the Damurhuda Upazila
Under Chuadanga district . Data was collected using a pre-structured questionnaire, but in order to obtain more information and insights semi-structured and unstructured questions were also
Ask for face-to-face interviews with the farmers. In these brick kilns, I also collect data on fuel
They used sources of soil etc. Data on also collect, how brick kilns impact agricultural land,
Education, livelihood, employment, and health issues. Qualitative data were used and explain
Based on the objectivity of this research and observation. In this paper, I used two kinds of data.
One is primary data and the other is secondary data. From primary data, I selected our locality, Damurhuda Upazila. I collect data by observing this area. And, I use secondary data like articles, research papers, and academic books. To explain brick kilns as the worst environmental
Problems, I use theoretical perspectives such as Risk Society, Marxism, Ecological
Modernization, First Generation theory, etc. I chose brick kilns as the worst environmental
Problems because it creates a number of problems which damage our environment badly.
These problems are interconnected. I connect this problem with our education, agriculture,
Employment, livelihood, and health issues.

Data Analyses and Discussion :

According to my observation in our local brick kilns, I found some impact in our locality.

Such as –

  • Air pollution and damage roads
  • Water pollution and damage to agricultural production
  • Health problems
  • Deforestation
  • Impact of education and livelihood

Air pollution and damage to roads:

Air is an important element of our environment and all our living beings. We cannot live
Without fresh air. But, the air is contaminated in a number of ways. In our locality, one of them is
Brick kilns. To burn brick, brick kilns use forest wood, fruit trees, coal, etc which produce

Sulfur dioxide, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Nitrogen dioxide, and polluted black
And white fumes. These elements are the main causes of air pollution.

The main raw materials for bricks are clay which is collected from the nearest bank of the river and agricultural land. This soil is transported by truck or lorry. This vehicle ran over the spread.
Most of the roads in our locality are damaged in the season of September to March due to brick kilns.

Water pollution and Damage to Agricultural Production :

Water is another important element in our environment which needs all plants, animals as
Well as all living beings. But, brick kilns affect our local water bodies badly. This brick kilns
Throw their waste into the nearest water body and polluted water. I mentioned above, these brick kilns collect their clay on the bank of the river and agricultural land. During the monsoon season, the river slopes are broken and the river is filling up. On the other hand, brick kilns also damage our agriculture. Agriculture is the main source of our rural areas. Most of
The farmers are compelled to sell their land to the owners. According to Hossain, M.A., and
Zahid, A.M., argue that “Air pollution and declining topsoil fertility in the areas where brick
Kilns are located contributes to a certain decline in agricultural yields. Brick kilns nearer to
Agricultural fields and the devastation of land are speeding up in the country. Consequently, evidence
The reduced yields from orchards and crops due to air pollution are well documented. Dust
Deposition on leaves of plants hinders photosynthesis, which reduces productivity. The
Conventional brick manufactured by burning coal and ruining invaluable topsoil has a
The devastating effect on agricultural production, water availability, and achieving sustainable
They also argue that because of soil degradation, soil fertility is declining in
Around brick kilns. They again argue that because of it, soil organic matter content near brick
The kiln was found low. Other soil nutrients such as Nitrogen, Potassium, Boron, and Zinc levels
Was also mostly reported to be of low level”. So, brick kilns affect our local water body and our
Agricultural production.

Health problems :

Brick kiln emissions and human health problems are related to each other. Brick kilns
Emissions pollute the air. Human beings inhale this air and they attack various diseases such as
Respiratory and Lung, Cancer and Irritation, cardiovascular and Nervous system, etc. All of
These diseases are caused by air pollution.

Deforestation :

In our locality, population growth is increasing day by day. They need more households. Build
New homeland they cut down trees indiscriminately. They sold out these trees near bricks.
Kilns. In addition, brick kilns buy trees and wood. To burn this and pollute the air.

Employment and Livelihood :

Brick kilns create a number of jobs. Most of the people near brick kilns work there and earn
Money. It creates a source of income. There are many works such as processing clay, making bricks, gathering dry brick, crying dry brick, burning brick, crying burn brick, supplying bricks, monitoring fields, etc. Brick kilns contribute to our GDP.
Besides, based on brick kilns area, a number of schools, Madrasah is established in our

Those problems are related to each other. We should solve these problems immediately.
According to “Ecological Modernization Theory” we need five social and Institutional
Structures to be ecologically transformed.

Such as :

  • Science and Technology: Science should work to invent more ecological and
    Sustainable Technologies.
  • Markets and Economic Agents: They should introduce incentives for environmentally
    Benign outcomes.
  • Nation-States: States should create market conditions for the environment.
    Social Movements Social movements should create pressure on business and the state will continue moving in an ecological direction.

Ecological Ideologies: To assist in persuading more people to get involved in the
Ecological Modernization of society (Mol,2010)

In that context, science and technology play an important role in preventing environmental
Damage. To solve environmental problems, we need policies and protests. According to
A.P.J.MOL, First Generation Theories: policies and protests which analyze national
Environmental policies and environmental state formation and studying environmental NGOs
And from this perspective, it is very helpful for solving environmental damage.


Brick is very important for residential construction, urbanization, establishments, Economy
And livelihood. But, this sector is not controlled adequately by the necessary standards and
Regulations. The whole country id depends on bricks for construction. But, brick kilns have a
Negative effect on our environment.

Production of brick, as a result, environmental
Degradation occurs because it emissions of significant quantities of particulates and gaseous
Pollutants. They affect our air quality, agricultural production, and certainly arable lands and
Waterbody. Hossain, M.A. and Zahid A,M. Argue that if the topsoil could be spread, we would
We have much higher agricultural production every year. Just like agriculture, bricks also need
Soil, rich in clay content. There could be two possible ways to deal with this pressure on topsoil.
One is, Reduce the demand for bricks, the other is, Find alternative materials to make bricks.
It is clear that brick kilns in our locality emit large quantities of air pollution.

So, this sector must be controlled. Mechanical feeders should be used for coal feeding. By Using
This would ensure the most effective burning of coal. The development of a green belt around the brick kilns may be an effective mitigation mechanism for fugitive emissions. The government
Should take steps to regulate brick kilns. Environmental awareness programs should be


1. Giddens, A(2013). Sociology. India: Wiley
2. Gross, Mathias and Harald Heinrichs (2010). Environmental Sociology. New York
: Springer.
3. Bhat Mohd Skinder, Ashok k.Pandit and Bashir Ahmed Canai (2014).Brick Kilns: Cause
Of Atmospheric pollution. Journal of Pollution Effects and Control.
4. Hossain, A.M.,Zahid, A.M.,Arifunnahar, M. and Siddique M.N.A.(2019).Effect of brick
Kilns on arable land degradation, environmental Pollution and Consequences on
The livelihood of Bangladesh. Journal of Science Technology and Environment

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