Every country has some cultures of their own that reflect their lifestyles. Their lifestyles, daily works, beliefs, customs, habits, style of society, origin time of society, social institutions, etc determine what kind of society they are. Already many countries are being turned into modern society. It is quite difficult to determine what kind of society a country is because many parts of a country may be traditional, transitional, or modern and Bangladesh is also an overpopulated country.
So there are many kinds of people and many kinds of religions, customs, beliefs. So in a word, there are many kinds of society in Bangladesh. So it is quite difficult to determine what kind of society Bangladesh is. In this complex circumstance, we should consider the overall situation of Bangladesh. To determine what kind of society a country is by analyzing the Character of society. Such as, daily works, beliefs, customs, habits, style of society, origin time of society, the economy with the characters of traditional, transitional, and modern society, and at that time we can say what kind of society Bangladesh is. So first we should look at the characters of these societies and then compare these characters with the society of Bangladesh.
Traditional society refers to a society characterized by an orientation to the past, not the future, with a predominant role for custom and habit. Such societies are marked by a lack of distinction between family and business, with the division of labor influenced primarily by age, gender, and status. The culture of traditional society has been introduced in the past and is almost the same today. People of this society perform their work based on custom. Such as, collecting fish from rivers, canals, cultivating crops, hunting animals.
They cultivate crops by using ancient methods. Always they depend on nature. Usually, they don’t take any steps to protect crops from natural calamities. In fact, they don’t have any idea how to protect crops from natural calamities. They make decisions based on their customs, beliefs without thinking about the main problems. They have less knowledge about modern technology or are not accustomed to using modern technology in their daily life. Normally they lead their life with ease. They don’t want to complicate their life. Characteristic of this society are
- An Individual’s status is determined by his birth and he does not strive for social mobility.
- An Individual’s behavior is governed by customs, traditions, norms, and values having deep links with the past. The social practices of people vary only slightly from generation to generation.
- Social organization (stable pattern of social relationships of individuals and sub-groups within a society that provides regularity and predictability in social interaction) is based on hierarchy.
- Kinship relations predominate in interaction and individuals identify themselves with primary groups.
The individual is given more importance in social relations than what his position actually warrants.
People are conservative.
The economy is simple, tool economy (and not machine economy) prevails and is conspicuous and economic productivity above subsistence level is relatively low; and Mythical thought (and not logical reasoning) predominates in society.
Modern society was not introduced in the past. It is a modern form of traditional society. The people of modern society depend much on technology. Characteristics of this society are the decline of religion and the rise of a secular materialistic culture (religious characteristic). The replacing of the feudal economy (getting services by the owner of the land) by an economy in which money system provides the medium for exchange (in trade) based on large-scale production and consumption of commodities for the market, extensive ownership of private property, and accumulation of capital on a long- term basis (economic characteristic).
The dominance of secular political authority over state and marginalization of religious influence from state/political matters (political characteristic). The decline of a social order based on a simple division of labor and the development of new division of labor based on specialization, the emergence of new classes, and changed relations between men and women (social characteristic). The forming of new nations (communities-ethnic or national) having their own identities and traditions to suit their own purposes, e.g., rejection of aristocracy and monarchy by France, Britain accepting monarchy only as a symbol, Egypt rejecting monarchy and accepting democracy, and so on (cultural characteristic).
The rise of scientific, rationalist ways of looking at the world (intellectual characteristic). Thus, while the traditional society is characterized by a ritual, custom, collectivity, community ownership, status quo, and continuity and simple division of labor, the modern society is characterized by rising of science, emphasis on reason and rationality, belief in progress, viewing government and the state as essential in bringing about progress, emphasis on economic development and complex division of labor, perceiving human-beings as capable of acquiring great control over nature and environment and seeing the world in terms of dualisms or opposites.
In these modern days, everything is changing. Nothing stays long. So these also affect our lifestyle, daily works, beliefs, customs, habits, social institutions, and so on. So these cause a change in society. That’s why traditional society is changed and it is turned into modern society. The medium stage between traditional and modern society is transitional society.
In transitional society change is significant. In this stage, traditional society is being turned into modern society. The world in which we live today is replete with change, transformation, and transition, as well as development and growth in nearly every aspect of life. To various degrees, all societies face some form of transition, either abrupt or gradual. Consequently, all countries are best described as societies in transition. This is particularly true of developing or emerging countries across the globe. In transitional societies, changes are significant and fundamental and permeate almost every aspect of life; including the social, cultural, political, and economic dimensions.
Thus, transitional societies create opportunities for re-imagining the intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of life. Societal transformations driven by multiculturalism, global culture, and global economies have significance for individuals’ sense of self or their identities. In these dynamic contexts of change, individuals are likely to embark on the complex process of exploring, developing, and committing to who they are, who they want to be, and their place in the world. This special issue presents the perspectives of a variety of scholars from across the world – all focussed on and actively involved in finding answers related to the interesting, complex, and dynamic process of making meaning of identities.
The Analysis of Bangladesh Society
Every part of a country does not have the same society. Such as, the culture of people of a city and rural area are not the same. Their lifestyles are not the same. There are many differences among them. If we see the people of the city we can see that their food habits, clothes, tastes, beliefs, norms, values are not the same as traditional society. These are quite similar to modern society but are not equal to modern society. They are in the medium stage.
Their food habits are a combination of other countries’ food habits. Such as, they like to eat Chinese food, Thai food, Italian food, Indian food, and so on. On the other hand, people of traditional society’s food habits are simple. The main food is rice and fish. But it is rare to find people who eat only their traditional food. Usually, they prefer to eat modern food along with traditional food. Their clothes are very much influenced by western culture. For example, men usually wear pants, shirts, shoes and so on. These clothes were not introduced in the past. But many people wear Dhoti, Panjabi.
So people are not completely modern. Our city is much like a mechanical city. There is technology all over the city area. There are huge buildings, markets, bazaars, factories. Sometimes this makes city life unbearable. People of the city start their daily life with technology. They work far from their home. Sometimes they are not conservative. They are connected from one part of the world to another part of the world. This is a sign of modern society.
Besides, if we see the scene of some rural areas, we can see that their food habits, cloth, tastes, beliefs, values, norms are quite the same as a traditional society but don’t fully match with traditional society’s people. There are some combinations of modern society’s culture though it is little. Rural people usually wear Lungi/Sarongs, T-shirts and so on. Sometimes they wear pants, shirts, shoes but they are not Accustomed to these dresses. Again many of them are trying to change their old habits and accept new styles.
Our cultivators cultivate their land using traditional ways along with modern technology but still, they don’t adopt full modern technology. Sometimes they depend on natural power. If nature favors them, they can cultivate good crops. But when natural calamities occur many of them can’t get rid of them because they don’t have proper knowledge about it. But people of modern society have this knowledge. They can easily get rid of natural calamities by using proper technology. So it may be said that our cultivators are in the transitional mode because they are adopting new methods along with their ancient methods.
In Bangladesh, there are many gypsies. They are totally included in traditional society. They are traveling from here to there. They do have not any fixed shelter. Their lifestyles fully differ from modern society’s people. When they are sick, they don’t consult doctors. They take treatment by their ancient method. They use Ayurveda treatment methods. Even while helping they use their ancient method. It is said that they are far from modern society. But day by day they are changing their lifestyle and adopting the modern style. But change is not so significant.
Again there are many small groups of people. They are not totally included in modern society. Many of their lifestyles are quite the same as a traditional society and many of their lifestyles are the same as a modern society. If we look at their houses, we can see majority’s houses are designed based on their traditional style and others’ houses are designed based on modern style. Many of them are not influenced by western culture.
The economy of Bangladesh is very complex and it is getting more complicated day by day. It is a combination of many things which is the sign of modern society. But in traditional society, it is as simple as possible. If we look at the working people of Bangladesh, we can see that a particular group of people is not doing just only their group of workers. They do work based on their experience ability. Such as, anyone can do the work of a blacksmith who has the ability to do this work. He need not be a blacksmith to do this work. So it can be realized that now people work determined by their group or region.
It is also a sign of modern society. Here labor divisions are created based on experience and ability, not age. Such as, organizations’ works are divided based on ability. That’s why a young person can be a CEO of an organization despite being a senior person. This is also a sign of modern society. But still, there are many organizations where work is divided based on seniority. Such as, in a government organization of our country. The majority of organizations follow experience and ability for labor division. Consequently, this is also a transition stage.
What is society like in Bangladesh?
Bangladesh is a socially hierarchical country. Individuals are valued for their age and status. Naturally, older individuals are seen as wise and accorded respect. Bangladeshis expect the most senior guy, regardless of age or position, to make decisions in the group’s best interest.
What is the social structure of Bangladesh?
Capitalist farmers, rich peasants, medium peasants, marginal peasants, and landless peasants are the various social classes that have formed in rural areas.
What is the civil society in Bangladesh?
Bangladesh’s civil society Mosque congregations, labor unions, professional associations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are all examples of civil society factions, organizations that advocate for the ‘public good’ or at the very least to further their own interests and ideals.
What are the different types of society?
Sociologists have grouped the many sorts of societies into six distinct categories, each with its own distinct characteristics:
- Societies dedicated to hunting and gathering.
- Societies pastorales.
- Societies of horticulture.
- Societies of agriculture.
- Societies industrial.
- Societies that are post-industrial.
From above this discussion, it is said that there are many societies in Bangladesh. Consequently, it is quite a difficult task to determine what kind of society Bangladesh is. In this circumstance, we have to consider the overall situation to find out which society belongs much more than others. We can not consider Bangladesh as a traditional society because everyone is changing. Again we also can’t consider Bangladesh as a modern society because their lifestyles are not the same as modern society’s people though there are many people who are included in modern society the amount is comparatively low.
In Bangladesh, everyone is changing and is trying to adopt new and these changes are significant. This portion is much more than others Consequently it is said that Bangladesh is a transitional society.